What is surrogacy?
Surrogacy is an arrangement between a woman and a couple or individual to carry and deliver a baby.
Why there is need to opt for surrogacy?
Women or couples who choose surrogacy often do so because they are unable to conceive due to a missing or abnormal uterus, have experienced multiple pregnancy losses, or have had multiple in vitro fertilization attempts that have failed.
Who is the surrogate mother?
Surrogate mother is the lady who agrees to lend her womb to the couple who are unable to conceive child due to above reasons.
This is done buy signing a legal contract between surrogate mother and couple.
It is the agreement in which surrogate mother agrees to lend her womb for particular monetary fees and also agrees to hand over the baby to parents after birth.
Types of Surrogacy:
There are two Different types of surrogacy, gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy
Gestation Surrogacy :
In gestational surrogacy, the embryo is implanted in the surrogate through in vitro fertilization. The surrogate carries the baby to term, then gives up the child and signs over parental rights at birth.
The advantage of gestational surrogacy to the parents is that the embryo is created from the woman’s egg (and not the surrogate mother’s egg) and the man’s sperm, so it is biologically theirs.
Here we get to see two methods
- By donating sperms: Here sperm from another man is taken which is fused with the egg of the women (genetical parent) via IVF and then implanted in surrogates.
- By donating egg: Here egg is taken from another women and fused with Male sperm (genetical Parent) via IVF and then implanted into surrogate.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in-vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertilitywhen other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The Procedure. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman’s ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then transferred to the mother’s uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy .
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in-vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertilitywhen other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed.
The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman’s ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then transferred to the mother’s uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy
Advantages of surrogacy:
The main benefit of surrogacy is that it provides childless couples a way to have children of their own.
It is favored over adoption since in most surrogacy arrangements, the kid will be genetically related to one or both parents.
Disadvantages of surrogacy:
Disadvantages of surrogacy include the possibility that the surrogate will change her mind about giving up the rights after birth.
The laws for surrogacy is different in different country or states which may create difficulties in right to claim for citizenship of that child.
There might also be differences between the couple and the carrier regarding medical, nutritional, Fees or testing issues.
Surrogacy in India and its legal issues:
The economic scale of surrogacy in India is unknown, but study backed by the United Nations in July 2012 estimated the business at more than $400 million a year, with over 3,000 fertility clinics across India.
In 2008, the Supreme Court of India has held that commercial surrogacy is permitted in India.
The main reason for this increase with fertile couples in industrialized nations is the less costlier surrogacy and better flexible laws.
Indian clinics are at the same time becoming more competitive, not just in the pricing, but in the hiring and retention of Indian females as surrogates.
The Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill, 2013 has a been pending for quite a while and it has not been presented in the Indian Parliament.
Costing in India:
Clinics charge patients between $10,000 and $28,000 including fertilization, the surrogate’s fee, and delivery of the baby at a hospital the complete package, While in America it cost about $ 35,000 – 50,000
The success rate of surrogacy cannot be determined because it is dependent on many factors. The first successful gestational surrogacy took place in 1985.